Tuesday, June 30, 2009

4QMMT

Q394 (4QMMTa) 4QHalakhic Lettera
Frags. 1 - 2 These fragments, published as 4Q394 1-2 i-v (4QMMT A 1-18), are in fact a different manuscript, 4Q327
Frags. 3 - 7 col. i (= 4Q395; 4QMMT A 19 - 21; B 1 - 16)
1 [The (twenty-)eighth of it] a sabbath. In addi[tion to] it, Su[nday, Monday and Tuesday]
2 [are to be ad]ded. And the year is complete, three hundred and si[xty-four]
3 days. Blank
4 These are some of our regulations [] which […]
5 [the] works which we […] they [a]ll concern […]
6 and purity of […] [And concerning the offering of the wh]eat of the [Gentiles which they …]
7 and let their […] touch it […] and they de[file it: you shall not eat]
8 of the wheat of [the Gen]tiles, [and it shall not] be brought into the temple. [And concerning the sacrifice of the sin-offering]
9 which they cook in vessels [of bronze …]
10 the flesh of their sacrifices and […] in the courtyard […]
11 with the broth of their sacrifices. And concerning the sacrifice of the Gentiles: [… they sacrifice]
12 to the […] it is [li]ke who whored with him. [And also concerning the cereal-offering of the sacrifice of]
13 the pea[ce-offerings], which they leave over from one day to another, and also […]
14 that the cere[al-offering should be eaten] with the fats and the meat on the day of [their] sacri[fice, for]
15 the priest[s] should oversee in this matter in such a way that [they] d[o] not
16 lead the people into sin. Blank And also in what pertains to the purity of the heifer of the sin-offering:
17 that whoever slaughters it and whoever burns it and whoever collects its ash and whoever sprinkles the [water of]
18 purification, Blank all these ought to be pure at sun[se]t,
19 so that a pure man sprinkles the impure. For the sons of
Frags. 3 - 7 col. ii (= 4Q395; 4Q397 3; 4QMMT B 17 - 20; 26 - 32)
1 [Aaron] should […]
2 [concerning hi]des of catt[le …]
3 their [hides] vessels […]
4 […] to the temp[le …]
5-12 […]
13 the pr[iest]s ought [to keep] wa[tch over all these th]ings [so that they do not]
14 lead the people into sin. [And concer]ning what is written: []
15 […] outside the camp a bull, or a sheep or a goat, for [… in the north of the camp.]
16 And we think that the temple [is the place of the tent of meeting, and Je]rusale[m]
17 is the camp; and out[side] the camp [is outside of Jerusalem;] it is the camp of
18 their cities. Outside the ca[mp …] […] removing the ashes from
19 [the] altar and bur[ning there the sin-offering, for Jerusalem] is the place which
Frag. 8 col. iii (= 4Q396 i - ii; 4Q397 5; 4QMMT B 36 - 50)
6 […] […]
7 [… And concerning the eating, we think that one can eat] the fetus
8 [… so and] the word is written:
9 [« a pregnant animal ». Blank? And concerning the Ammon]ite and the Moabite
10 [and the bastard and the one with crushed testicles and one whose penis has been cut off, if these enter] the assembly
11 [… and] take [wives]
12 [to become one bone impurities. And also] we [thi]nk
13 […] concerning these
14 [… that one should not let] them be united [and] make them
15 […]
16 [… some of] the people
17 [… associa]ting
18 [… from all] uncleanness of [the] male
19 [and be respectful towards the temple And also concer]ning the blind
20 [who cannot see: they should keep themselves from all uncleanness,] and uncleanness of
Frag. 8 col. iv (= 4Q396 ii - iii; 4Q397 6 - 13; 4QMMT B 51 - 66)
1 [the sin] offering these do not see. Blank
2 [And al]so concerning the deaf who have not heard the law [and the pr]ecept and the purity regulation, and have not
3 [h]eard the precepts of Israel, for whoever neither sees nor hears, does not
4 [k]now how to behave. But these are approaching the pu[ri]ty of the temple. Blank
5 [And] also concerning liquid streams: we say that in these there is no
6 [pu]rity, and also that liquid streams can not separate impure
7 [from] pure, because the liquid of the liquid streams and their vessels is alike,
8 the same liquid. And one should not let dogs enter the h[o]ly camp, because
9 they might eat some of the [bo]nes from the temp[le with] the flesh on them. For
10 Jerusalem is the holy camp, it is the place
11 which he has chosen from among all the tribes of [Israel, since] Jerusalem is the head
12 of the ca[mps of Israel. And also concerning the plantati]on of fruit trees [pla]nted
13 [in the land of Israel, it is like the first-fruits, it is for the prie]sts. And the tithe of [the cattle]
14 [and the flocks is for the priests. Blank And also concerning le]pers: w[e]
15 [say that they should not enter (a place) with ho]ly [purity,] but [in isolation]
16 [they shall stay outside a house. And also it is written that from the moment he sh]aves [and washes]
4Q395 (4QMMTb) 4QHalakhic Letterb
(= 4Q394 3 - 7 i-ii; ; 4QMMT B 5 - 18)
1 the sacri[fice of the sin-offering which they cook in vessels of bronze …]
2 in it [the flesh of their sacrifices …]
3 with [the broth of their sacrifices. And concerning the sacrifice of the Gentiles …]
4 [they] sacrifice [to …]
5 the sacrifice of the [peace-offerings which they leave over from one day to another, and also …]
6 that the ce[real-offering should be e]aten [with the fats and the meat on the day of their sacrifice, for the priests]
7 should ov[er]see in [this] matter [in such a way that they do not lead the people into sin.]
8 And also in what pertains to the purity of the /heifer/ of the sin-[offering: that whoever slaughters it and whoever burns it and whoever collects]
9 [its] as[h] and whoever sprinkles the [water of purification. At sunset, all these]
10 ought to be pure so th[at a pure man sprinkles the impure. For the sons of]
11 Aaron should […]
12 hides of [cattle …]
4Q396 (4QMMTc) 4QHalakhic Letterc
Col. i (= 4Q394 8 iii; 4Q397 5; 4QMMT B 35 - 40)
1 […] they do [no]t slaughter in the temple.
2 [And concerning pregnant animals: we think that one should not sacrifice t]he mother and the fetus on the same day
3 [… And concerning the eating: w]e think that one can eat the fetus
4 […] so and that the word is written: « a pregnant animal » Blank
5 [And concerning the Ammonite and the Moabite and the bastard and the one with crushed testicles and one whose] penis [has been cut] off, if these enter
6 [the assembly and] t[a]ke [wives to beco]me [one] bone
Col. ii (= 4Q394 8 iii - iv; 4Q397 6 - 13; 4QMMT B 49 - 60)
1 and to be respectful towards the temple. [And also concerning the blind] who cannot
2 see: they should keep themselves from all uncleann[ess; and the uncleanness of the sin-offering] they do not
3 see. Blank And also concerning the de[af who have not] heard the law
4 and the precept and the purity regulation, and have not heard the prec[epts of] Israel
5 for whoever neither sees nor hears, does not [know] how to act. But these
6 are approaching the purity of the temple. And also [concerning liquid str]ea[ms, we]
7 say that in these there is no [purity. Neither can liquid streams]
8 separate impure from pu[re, because the liquid of the liquid streams]
9 and their containers is alike, [the same] li[quid. And one should not let] dogs [enter the holy camp,]
10 because they might eat [some of the bones from the te[mple with the flesh]
11 [on] them. Because Jeru[sa]l[em is the holy camp, it is the place]
Col. iii (= 4Q394 8 iv; 4Q397 6 - 13; 4QMMT B 61 - 71)
1 which he has chosen from among all the tribes of I[srael, since Jer]usalem is the head
2 [of the cam]ps of Israel. Blank And also con[cerning the plan]tation of fruit tree[s] planted
3 in the land of Israel, it is like the first-fruits, it is for the priests. Blank And the tithe of the cattle
4 and of the flocks is for the priests. And also concerning lepers: we
5 s[ay that] they should [not] enter {the pur} (a place) with hol[y] purity, but [in isolation]
6 [they shall stay outside a house. And] also it is written that {on} /from/ the moment he shaves and washes [he should] stay outside
7 [his tent for seven d]ays. But now, even when they are still unclean
8 [lepers approach (a place) wi]th holy purity, the house. And you know
9 […] and it is taken away from him, must bring {it}
10 [a sin-offering. And concerning him who acts offensively it is wri]tten that he is a slanderer and a blasp[he]mer.
11 [And also: when they have the uncleanness of leprosy] one should not allow them to eat any of the ho[l]y things
Col. iv (= 4Q397 6 - 13; 4QMMT B 72 - 82)
1 until the sun sets on the eighth day. And concerning [the uncleanness of the corpse of]
2 a man: we say that every bone, [whether stripped of flesh]
3 or complete, is subject to the law concerning a dead or murdere[d person. Blank]
4 And concerning the fornications carried out in the midst of the people: they are me[mbers of …]
5 (of) holiness, as it is written: « Holy is Israel ». And concerning the [pure] an[imal]
6 it is written that he shall not let two species mate; and concerning clot[hing, that no]
7 materials are to be mixed; and he will not sow his field or [his] vi[neyard with two species]
8 [be]cause they are holy. But the sons of Aaron are the ho[liest of the holy]
9 [and y]ou know that a part of the priests and of the [people mingle]
10 [and they] unite with each other and defile the [holy] seed [and also]
11 their (own) [seed] with fornications, be[cause …]
4Q397 (4QMMTd) 4QHalakhic Letterd
Frag. 3 (= 4Q394 3 - 7 ii; 4QMMT B 26 - 34)
1 [… should keep watch over] all [these] thing[s …]
2 [… in the nor]th of the camp. […]
3 [… and Jerusalem i]s the camp; and outside the [camp …]
4 […] [and remo]ving [the ashes from the altar …]
5 [… the place which he chose from among] all the tr[ibes of Israel …]
6 […] […]
Frag. 5 (= 4Q394 8 iii; 4Q396 i; 4QMMT B 39 - 48)
1 [And concerning the Ammonite and the Moabite and] the bastard and the one with cr[ushed testicles and one whose penis has been cut off, if these enter the assembly …]
2 [and take wives to beco]me one bone […]
3 […] impurities. And also [we] think [… concerning these …]
4 [… that one should n]ot let them be united and mak[e them …]
5 [… so]me of the people […]
6 […] from all un[cleanness of the male …]
Frags. 6 - 13 (= 4Q394 8 iv; 4Q396 ii - iv; 4QMMT B 56 - 81)
1 [We say that in these there is no purity. Neither can liquid streams separate] impure from pu[re]
2 [because the liquid of the liquid streams and their containers is alike, the same liquid. And one should not let] dogs [enter the h]oly [camp]
3 [because they might eat some of the b]ones from the te[mple with] the flesh o[n them. Because Jerusalem is the] holy camp, i[t is]
4 [the place which He has chosen] from among all [the tribes of] Israel, since Je[rusalem] is [the head of the camps of Israel.] And also concerning the planta[tion of]
5 [fruit trees planted in the land of Israe]l, it is like the first-fruits, [it is for the priests. And the tithe of the cattle] and the flo[cks] is [for] the priests.
6 [And also concerning lepers: we say that they should not enter (a place) with holy purity, but in isolation] they [shall] stay
7 [outside a house. And al]so is it wr[itten that from the moment he shav]es and [washes he shall sta]y outsi[de his tent for seven days. But now]
8 [even when they are still uncl]ean le[pers approach (a place) with hol]y purity, the house. [And you know …]
9 [ and it is taken aw]ay from him, [must bring] a sin-offering. And con[cerning him who acts offensively it is written that h]e is a sl[anderer and a] blasph[emer.]
10 [And also: when they have the un]cleanness of le[prosy one should not] allow them to eat [any of the holy things until the sun sets on the] eig[hth day. And concerning]
11 [the uncleanness of a corpse] of a man we s[a]y that every [bone, whether stripped of flesh or complete is subject to the l]aw concerning a dead or murde[red person.]
12 And concerning the fornications ca[rr]ied out in the midst of the peop[le: they are members of holiness,] as it is written: « Holy is [Israel ».]
13 [And concerning the pu]re [animal], it is written that he shall n[ot] let [two species] mate; [and concerning clothing, that no] materials [are to be mixed;] and he will n[ot sow]
14 [his field or his vineyard with two speci]es be[ca]use th[ey are holy. But the sons of Aaron are the holiest of the holy, and y]ou kn[ow]
15 […] […]
Frags. 14 - 21 (= 4Q398 14 - 17 i; 4QMMT C 1 - 17)
1 […] […]
2 […] […] who comes […]
3 and who […] will be […]
4 And concerning the wom[en …] and the disloyalty […]
5 for in these matters [… because of] violence and fornication [many]
6 places have been ruined. [And also] it is writ[ten in the book of Moses:] you shall [no]t bring an abomination in[to your house for]
7 abomination is an odious thing. [And you know that] we have segregated ourselves from the multitude of the peop[le …]
8 [and] from mingling in these affairs, and from associating wi[th them] in these things. And you k[now that there is not]
9 to be found in our actions disloyalty or deceit or evil, for concerning [these things] we give […]
10 to you we have [written] that you must understand the book of Moses [and] the book[s of the pr]ophets and Davi[d …]
11 [the annals of] each generation. And in the book is written […] not
12 [… and the former times …] And further it is written that [you shall stray] from the pa[t]h and evil will encounter [you]. And it is writ[ten: and it shall happen]
13 [when a]ll [these] thing[s shall befall you at the e]nd of days, the bles[sing and] the curse
14 [then you shall take it to] your [heart] and will turn [to him with al]l your heart and with [al]l [your] soul at the end [of time]
15 [And it is written in the book] of Moses and in the b[ook of the prophet]s, that there will come […] […]
16 […] […] […]
4Q398 (4QMMTe) 4QHalakhic Lettere
Frags. 11 - 13 (= 4QMMT C 18 - 24)
1 [the bles]sing[s …] […] in the days of Solomon the son of David and also the curses
2 [which] came in the days of [Jer]oboam son of Nebat and up to the ex[i]le of Jerusalem and of Zedekiah, king of Juda[h]
3 [that] he should bring them in […]. And we are aware that part of the blessings and curses have occurred
4 that are written in the b[ook of Mos]es. And this is the end of days, when they will return in Israel
5 to the L[aw …] and not turn bac[k] and the wicked will act wick[edly] and […]
6 and […] remember the kings of Israe[l] and reflect on their deeds, how whoever of them
7 was respecting [the La]w was freed from afflictions; and those were the se[ek]ers of the Law
Frags. 14 - 17 col. i (= 4Q397 14 - 17 i; 4QMMT C 9 - 16)
1 [in our actions disloyalty or deceit or evil, for concerning these things we gi]ve
2 […] we [have written that you must understand the bo]ok of Moses
3 [and the books of the prophets and David and the annals of each] generation [and in] the book is written
4 […] and the former times
5 [it is writ]ten that you [shall stray from the path and evil will encounter] you. And it is written: and it shall happen when
6 [all] these [things shall befa]ll you at the en[d] of days, the blessing
7 [and the] curse, [then you shall take it] to your he[art] and will turn to him with all your heart
8 [and with al]l [your] soul [at the en]d [of time] and […]
Frags. 14 - 17 col. ii (= 4Q399 i-ii; 4QMMT C 25 - 32)
1 [forgiv]en (their) sins. Remember David, who was a man of the pious ones, [and] he, too,
2 [was] freed from many afflictions and was forgiven. And also we have written to you
3 some of the works of the Torah which we think are good for you and for your people, for we s[a]w
4 that you have intellect and knowledge of the Law. Reflect on all these matters and seek from him that he may support
5 your counsel and keep far from you the evil scheming{s} and the counsel of Belial,
6 so that at the end of time, you may rejoice in finding that some of our words are true.
7 And it shall be reckoned to you as justice when you do what is upright and good before him, for your good
8 and that of Israel.
4Q399 (4QMMTf) 4QHalakhic Letterf
Col. i (= 4Q398 14 - 17 ii; 4QMMT C 26 - 27)
1-8 […]
9 [Remember David, who was a man of the pious ones, and he, too, was] freed
10 [from many afflictions and was forgiven. And also] to you we [have written]
11 [some of the precepts of the Law which we think are goo]d for you Blank For we saw
Col. ii (= 4Q398 14 - 17 ii; 4QMMT 28 - 32)
1 [that you have intellect and knowledge of the Law. Reflect on all these matters and seek] from him
2 [that he may support your counsel and keep far from you the] evil scheming
3 [so that at the end of time, you may rejoice] in finding that some of our words
4 [are true. And it shall be reckoned to you as justice when you] do what is upright Blank before him,
5 [for your good and that of Is]rael. Blank
6-11 Blank [Col. iii 1 - 4 Blank]
(
(XXX)
explanation required for the meaning of the English text
[
] XXX [
legible text of varying degrees of certainty, preserved in the manuscript
[XXX]
text restoration, sometimes minimally preserved in the manuscript
] … [
one or more illegible traces or untranslatable readings in the manuscript
[…]
lacuna of unspecified length in the manuscript
Blank
Blank
space left blank in the manuscript
] … [
one or more illegible traces or untranslatable readings in the manuscript
[…]
lacuna of unspecified length in the manuscript
{XXX} or {…}
legible or illegible text erased or corrected by the copyist
/XXX/ or /…/
legible or illegible text inserted between the lines by the copyist
/
/XXX/ or /…/
legible or illegible text inserted between the lines by the copyist
{
{XXX} or {…}
legible or illegible text erased or corrected by the copyist
Garc─▒́a Mart─▒́nez, Florentino ; Tigchelaar, Eibert J. C.: The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition (Translations). Leiden; New York : Brill, 1997-1998, S. 2:791-805

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